Some Information about Shingle Roofing
The kind of roofing with covering that composes of individual overlapping elements is shingle roofing. The elements of shingle roofing are described as flat, rectangular in shape, and are laid in courses from the bottom edge of the roof up, with every successive course overlaps the joints before it. There are several different materials that made up the shingles, and these are wood, slate, flagstone, metal, plastic, and composite materials like fiber cement and asphalt shingles. Ceramic roof tiles, or simply called tiles, are the dominant materials that are used in Europe and other parts in Asia.
Almost always, roof shingles are very visible, thus this aspect of a building is very important especially where aesthetics is concern with reference to patterns, textures and colors. Just like the other building materials of vernacular buildings, roof shingles are usually made of materials that are locally available. Since the material affects the pitch of the roof and its construction method, the type of shingle is being considered before construction begins. While other shingles can be installed on lath, some would need sheathing that is solid on the roof deck. To avoid leaks, all shingle roofs are installed from the bottom going up, and it begins with a starter course with the edge seams offset. To further prevent leaks from wind, rain, snow and ice, there is an underlayment material like asphalt felt paper where many shingle are placed on top as these shingles are installed. Be aware that some building codes do not allow for use on some types of buildings those roof shingles that are less than class-A fire rating, thus it is good to be aware that some roof shingles are non-combustible and have better fire rating than the others. The increased probability of fire has led to the less common use of wood shingles and organic-based asphalt shingles compared to the fiberglass-based asphalt shingles. The minimum recommended roof pitch of shingles is 4:12 with no underlayment material under it since shingles are not water-tight.
For residential roofing applications, the most common roofing material by far being used like in the United States are fiberglass-based asphalt shingles. The much less common are the bitumen roof shingles or tile strips, which are used in Europe, are easy to install, relatively affordable, and could last 20 to 50 years.
When choosing your roof shingles, be aware of the source of their protection, like the protection of paper and fiberglass asphalt shingles comes from the long-chain petroleum carbons, while the wood shingles are protected from the natural oils in the cellulose structure of the wood.
You will find other types of shingles made of different materials, and so you have stone shingles, fiber cement shingles, metal shingles, plastic shingles and cedar shingles.